Candida species as potential nosocomial pathogens – A review
More details
Hide details
Government Medical College, Miraj, M.S., India
Department of Microbiology, Maharashtra Institute of Medical Sciences & Research, Latur, M.S., India
Dr. Panjabrao alias Bhausaheb Deshmukh Memorial Medical College, Amravati, Maharashtra, India
Publication date: 2018-01-09
Electron J Gen Med 2018;15(2):em05
The frequency of nosocomial fungal infections is being increased because of the advent of newer diagnostic and therapeutic techniques. Among various fungal pathogens, Candida spp. are the cause of substantial morbidity and mortality in hospitalized patients, especially among critically ill hospitalized patients. The frequency of non-ablicans spp. of Candida (NAC) causing nosocomial infections is increasing. The Candida infections are usually endogenous, however, the exogenous infections may also occur. The important predisposing factors leading to nosocomial candidiasis include treatment with broad spectrum antibiotics, immunosuppression, malignancy, surgical intervention, diabetes and prolonged hospitalization. Virulence factors like adherence to biotic and abiotic substances and production of hydrolytic enzymes play important role. Also the biofilm forming ability makes it more noxious. Nosocomial Candida infections are difficult to diagnose clinically and refractory to therapy. Therefore, rapid and accurate laboratory diagnosis is very important to provide appropriate antifungal treatment. This review is structured to know the key factors responsible for emergence of Candida spp. as important nosocomial pathogens. The available data suggests that the nosocomial infections caused by Candida spp. should be dealt through awareness and constant vigilance.
Warnock D, Cambell C. Medical Mycology. Mycol Res. 1996;100:1153-62.
Rajkumari N, Mathur P, Xess I, Misra M. Distribution of different yeasts isolates among trauma patients and comparison of accuracy in identification of yeasts by automated method versus conventional methods for better use in low resource countries. Indian J Med Microbiol. 2014; 32: 391-4.
Pfaller M. Nosocomial candidiasis: Emerging species, reservoirs, and modes of transmission. Clin Infect Dis. 1996;22:S89-94.
Méan M, Marchetti O, Calandra T. Bench-to-bedside review: Candida infections in the intensive care unit. Crit Care. 2008;12:204.
Lockhart S. Current epidemiology of Candida infection. Clin Microbiol Newsl. 2014;36:131-6.
Giri S, Kindo A. A review of Candida species causing blood stream infection. Indian J Med Microbiol. 2014;30:270-8.
Eggimann P, Garbina J, Pittet D. Epidemiology of Candida species infections in critically ill non- immunosuppressed patients. Lancet Infect Dis. 2003;3:685-702.
Verma A, Prasad K, Singh M, Dixit A, Ayyagari A. Candidaemia in patients of a tertiary health care hospital from north India. Indian J Med Res. 2003;117:122-8.
Prasad K, Agarwal J, Dixit A, Tiwari D, Dhole T, Ayyagari A. Role of yeasts as nosocomial pathogens and their susceptibility to fluconazole and amphotericin B. Indian J Med Res. 1999;110:11-7.
Ha J, Italiano C, Heath C, Shih S, Rea S, Wood F. Candidemia and invasive candidiasis: A review of literature for the burns surgeon. Burns. 2011;9:181-95.
Rangel-Frausto MS, Houston AK, Bale MJ, Fu C, Wenzel RP. An experimental model for study of Candida survival and transmission in human volunteers. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis. 1994;13:590-5.
Seneviratne L, Jin L, Samaranayake L. Biofilm lifestyle of Candida: a minireview. Oral Dis. 2008;14:582-90.
Narang A, Agarwal P, Chakrabarti A, Kumar P. Epidemiology of systemic candidiasis in a tertiary neonatal unit. J Trop Paed. 1998;44:104-8.
Deorukhkar S, Saini S. Virulence factors attributed to pathogenicity of non albicans Candida species isolated from human immunodeficiency virus infected patients with oropharyngeal candidiasis. Annals Pathol and Lab Med 2015b 3:A62-5.
Silva S, Negri M, Henriques M, Oliveria R, Williams D, Azeredo J. Candida glabrata, Candida parapsilosis and Candida tropicalis: biology, epidemiology, pathogenicity and antifungal resistance. FEMS Microbiol Rev. 2012,36:288-305.
Kojic E, Darouiche R. Candida infections of medical devices. Clin Microbiol Rev. 2004;17:255-67.
Deorukhkar S, Saini S. Evaluation of phospholipase activity in biofilm forming Candida species isolated from intensive care unit patients. British Microbiol Res J. 2013;3:440-7.
Sardi J, Scorzoni L, Bernardi T, Fusco- Almedia A, Mendes Giannini M. Candida species: current epidemiology, pathogenicity, biofilm formation, natural antifungal products and new therapeutic options. J Med Microbiol. 2013;62:10-24.
Chakrabarti A, Singh K, Das S. Changing face of nosocomial candidemia. Ind J Med Microbiol. 1999;17:160-66.
Teles F, Seixas J. The future of novel diagnostics in medical mycology. J Med Microbiol. 2015;64:315-22.
Nepplenbroek K, Seo R, Urban V, et al. Identification of Candida species in the clinical laboratory: a review of conventional, commercial, and molecular techniques. Oral Dis. 2014;20:329-44.
Deorukhkar S, Saini S. Candidiasis: Past, present and future. Int J Infect Trop Dis. 2015a;2:12-24.
Kontoyiannis D. Invasive mycoses: strategies for effective management. Am J Med. 2012;125:S25-38.
Andriole V. Current and future antifungal therapy: new targets for antifungal therapy. International J Antimicrob Agents. 2000;16:317-21.
Denning D, Hope W. Therapy for fungal diseases: opportunities and priorities. Trends Microbiol. 2010;18:195- 204.
Dismukes W. Introduction to antifungal drugs. Clin Infect Dis. 2000;30: 653-7.
Kathiravan M, Salake A, Chothe A, et al. The biology and chemistry of antifungal agents: A review. Bioorg Med Chem. 2012;20: 5678-98.
Journals System - logo
Scroll to top