A comparative study of regional variations in common visual impairments among school-age children
More details
Hide details
Department of Nursing Management and Social Work, Sechenov First Moscow State Medical University, Moscow, RUSSIA
College of Medicine, Umm Al-Qura University, Makkah, SAUDI ARABIA
Department of Organizations and Economics of Pharmacy, Sechenov First Moscow State Medical University, Moscow, RUSSIA
Research Center of Monetary Relations, Financial University Under the Government of the Russian Federation, Moscow, RUSSIA
Online publication date: 2023-05-13
Publication date: 2023-09-01
Electron J Gen Med 2023;20(5):em504
This study aims to examine the incidence and age-related prevalence of eye conditions among school-age children living in Moscow Region (Russian Federation) and Riyadh (Saudi Arabia).

The study sample includes 573 visually impaired children aged 7-17 years (13.85±1.24 years) in Russian Federation and 600 children (13.78±1.11 years) in Saudi Arabia.

Myopia in Russian Federation was with a prevalence rate of 35.6%, followed by astigmatism (21.3%), strabismus (16.2%), conjunctivitis (13.6%), hyperopia (10%). The incidence of visual impairment was lower for children from Saudi Arabia compared to Russian Federation (OR=1.01, 95% CI [0.85-1.17] in 2018, OR=0.93, 95% CI [0.83-1.03] in 2022 in Saudi Arabia and OR=1.36, 95% CI [1.25-1.47] in 2018 vs. OR=1.33, 95% CI [1.23-1.43] in 2022 in Russian Federation). In Saudi Arabia, myopia occurred in 10% of cases at 7-10 years, 20% at 11-13 years, and 25% at 14-17 years.

The satisfactory state of the health system in Saudi Arabia compared with Russian Federation has resulted in a lower incidence of visual diseases among children. The possible causes of the myopia prevalence are worse medical system in the Russian Federation compared to Saudi Arabia, and climate in both countries.

Oluonye N, Sargent J. Severe visual impairment: Practical guidance for paediatricians. Paed Child Health. 2018;28(8):379-83. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.paed....
Devarajan P, Maheshgowri R. Visual acuity of school age children in selected schools of pimpri chinchwad metropolitan corporation: A cross sectional study. J Dent Res Rev. 2020;7:49-52.
Gilbert C, Bowman R, Malik AN. The epidemiology of blindness in children: Changing priorities. Community Eye Health. 2017;30(100):74-7.
GBD 2019 Blindness and Vision Impairment Collaborators; Vision Loss Expert Group of the Global Burden of Disease Study. Causes of blindness and vision impairment in 2020 and trends over 30 years, and prevalence of avoidable blindness in relation to VISION 2020: The Rright to sight: An analysis for the global burden of disease study [published correction appears in Lancet Glob Health. 2021;9(4):e408]. Lancet Glob Health. 2021;9(2):e144-60. https://doi.org/10.1016/S2214-... PMid:33275949.
GBD 2019 Blindness and Vision Impairment Collaborators; Vision Loss Expert Group of the Global Burden of Disease Study. Trends in prevalence of blindness and distance and near vision impairment over 30 years: An analysis for the global burden of disease study. Lancet Glob Health. 2021;9(2):e130-43. https://doi.org/10.1016/S2214-... PMid:33275950.
Fricke TR, Tahhan N, Resnikoff S, et al. Global prevalence of presbyopia and vision impairment from uncorrected presbyopia: Systematic review, meta-analysis, and modelling. Ophthalmol. 2018;125(10):1492-9. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.opht... PMid:29753495.
Holden BA, Fricke TR, Wilson DA, et al. Global prevalence of myopia and high myopia and temporal trends from 2000 through 2050. Ophthalmol. 2016;123(5):1036-42. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.opht... PMid:26875007.
Kran BS, Lawrence L, Mayer DL, Heidary G. Cerebral/cortical visual impairment: A need to reassess current definitions of visual impairment and blindness. In: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology; 2019; Philadelphia, PA, USA: WB Saunders; 2019. p. 25-29. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.spen... PMid:31548020.
Solebo AL, Teoh L, Rahi, J. Epidemiology of blindness in children. Arch Dis Child. 2016;102(9):853-7. https://doi.org/10.1136/archdi... PMid:28465303.
Van den Broek EGC, van Eijden AJPM, Overbeek MM, Kef S, Sterkenburg PS, Schuengel C. A systematic review of the literature on parenting of young children with visual impairments and the adaptions for video-feedback intervention to promote positive parenting (VIPP). J Dev Phys Disabil. 2017;29(3):503-45. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10882... PMid:28496296 PMCid:PMC5403903.
Merrie YA, Tegegne MM, Munaw MB, Alemu HW. Prevalence and associated factors of visual impairment among school-age children in Bahir Dar City, Northwest Ethiopia. Clin Optom. 2019;11:135-43. https://doi.org/10.2147/OPTO.S... PMid:31807106 PMCid:PMC6850709.
Salt AT, O’Reilly MA, Sakkalou E, Dale NJ. Detection vision development in infants and toddlers with congenital vision disorders and profound-severe visual impairment. Dev Med Child Neurol. 2020;62(8):962-8. https://doi.org/10.1111/dmcn.1... PMid:32237151.
Chen A-H, Abu Bakar NF, Arthur P. Comparison of the pediatric vision screening program in 18 countries across five continents. J Curr Ophthalmol. 2019;31(4):357-65. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.joco... PMid:31844783 PMCid:PMC6896448.
Kelly SM. Special education for young children with visual impairments. In: Obiakor FE, Bakken JP, editors. Special education for young learners with disabilities. Bingley: Emerald Publishing Limited; 2019. p. 87-102. https://doi.org/10.1108/S0270-... PMid:31315420 PMCid:PMC6920557.
Atowa UC, Hansraj R, Wajuihian SO. Visual problems: A review of prevalence studies on visual impairment in school-age children. Int J Ophthalmol. 2019;12(6):1037-43. https://doi.org/10.18240/ijo.2....
Federal State Statistics Service (Rosstat). Population of the Russian Federationn Federation by municipalities as of January 1, 2022. Rosstat; 2022. Available at: https://rosstat.gov.ru/compend... (Accessed: 22 July 2022).
Alkhateeb A, Alboali R, Alharbi W, Saleh O. Smartphone addiction and its complications related to health and daily activities among university students in Saudi Arabia: A multicenter study. J Fam Med Prim Care. 2020;9(7):3220-4. https://doi.org/10.4103/jfmpc.... PMid:33102273 PMCid:PMC7567211.
Alsaqr A, Abu Sharha A, Fagehi R, et al. The visual status of adolescents in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia: A population study. Clin Ophthalmol. 2018;12:965-72. https://doi.org/10.2147/OPTH.S... PMid:29872255 PMCid:PMC5973314.
Aldebasi YH. Prevalence of correctable visual impairment in primary school children in Qassim Province, Saudi Arabia. J Optom. 2014;7(3):168-76. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.opto... PMid:25000873 PMCid:PMC4087181.
Alabdulwahhab KM, Ahmad MS. Visual impairment and blindness in Saudi Arabia’s school for the blind: a cross-sectional study. Clin Optom. 2020;12:169-73. https://doi.org/10.2147/OPTO.S... PMid:33117027 PMCid:PMC7553034.
Al-Shaaln FF, Bakrman MA, Ibrahim AM, Aljoudi AS. Prevalence and causes of visual impairment among Saudi adults attending primary health care centers in northern Saudi Arabia. Ann Saudi Med. 2011;31(5):473-80. https://doi.org/10.4103/0256-4... PMid:21911984 PMCid:PMC3183681.
Al-Ghamdi AS. Adults visual impairment and blindness–An overview of prevalence and causes in Saudi Arabia. Saudi J Ophthalmol. 2019;33(4):374-81. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sjop... PMid:31920448 PMCid:PMC6950952.
Badimova AV. Epidemiological peculiarities of morbidity and disability caused by diseases of visual organs in Russia and abroad. Sci Young–Eruditio Juvenium. 2020;8(2):261-8. https://doi.org/10.23888/HMJ20....
Alswailmi FK. Global prevalence and causes of visual impairment with special reference to the general population of Saudi Arabia. Pak J Med Sci. 2018;34(3):751-6. https://doi.org/10.12669/pjms.... PMid:30034452 PMCid:PMC6041538.
Safonov V, Ermakov V, Danilova V, Yakimenko V. Relationship between blood superoxide dismutase activity and zinc, copper, glutathione and metallothioneines concentrations in calves. Biomath. 2021;10(2):2111247. https://doi.org/10.11145/j.bio....
Ermakov V, Safonov V, Dogadkin D. Characteristic features of molybdenum, copper, tungsten and rhenium accumulation in the environment. Innov Infrastruct Solut. 2021;6:104. https://doi.org/10.1007/s41062....
Wang J, Li M, Zhu D, Cao Y. Smartphone overuse and visual impairment in children and young adults: Systematic review and meta-analysis. J Med Internet Res. 2020;22(12):e21923. https://doi.org/10.2196/21923 PMid:33289673 PMCid:PMC7755532.
Al Bahhawi T, Makeen AM, Daghreeri HH, et al. refractive error among male primary school students in Jazan, Saudi Arabia: Prevalence and associated factors. Open J Ophthalmol. 2018;12:264-72. https://doi.org/10.2174/187436... PMid:30369991 PMCid:PMC6174611.
Al Amro SA, Al Aql F, Al Hajar S, et al. Practical guidelines for screening and treatment of retinopathy of prematurity in Saudi Arabia. Saudi J Ophthalmol. 2018;32(3):222-6. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sjop... PMid:30224887 PMCid:PMC6137828.
Yasir ZH, Chauhan D, Khandekar R, Souru C, Varghese S. Prevalence and determinants of dry eye disease among 40 years and older population of Riyadh (except Capital), Saudi Arabia. Middle East Afr J Ophthalmol. 2019;26(1):27-32. https://doi.org/10.4103/meajo.... PMid:31114121 PMCid:PMC6507383.
Khandekar R, Chauhan D, Yasir ZH, Al-Zobidi M, Judaibi R, Edward DP. The prevalence and determinants of glaucoma among 40 years and older Saudi residents in the Riyadh Governorate (except the Capital)–A community based survey. Saudi J Ophthalmol. 2019;33(4):332-7. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sjop... PMid:31920442 PMCid:PMC6950957.
Alghadir AH, Alotaibi AZ, Iqbal ZA. Postural stability in people with visual impairment. Brain Behav. 2019;9(11):e01436. https://doi.org/10.1002/brb3.1... PMid:31578824 PMCid:PMC6851802.
Al-Rashidi SH, Albahouth AA, Althwini WA, et al. Prevalence refractive errors among medical students of Qassim University, Saudi Arabia: Cross-sectional descriptive study. Open Access Maced J Med Sci. 2018;6(5):940-3. https://doi.org/10.3889/oamjms... PMid:29875876 PMCid:PMC5985887.
Kahloun R, Khairallah M, Resnikoff S, et al. Prevalence and causes of vision loss in North Africa and Middle East in 2015: Magnitude, temporal trends and projections. Br J Ophthalmol. 2019;103(7):863-70. https://doi.org/10.1136/bjopht... PMid:30209082.
Alghamdi W, Ovenseri-Ogbomo GO. The prevalence and causes of visual impairment in Dariyah, a rural community in Saudi Arabia. Afr Vis Eye Health. 2021;80(1):1-5. https://doi.org/10.4102/AVEH.V....
Surbeeva ES, Sipkina NY, Komova SI, Efremova UA, Terninko II. Screening of lipophilic fractions of botanical forms of celery by GC/MS method. Drug Dev Registr. 2022;11(3):181-94. https://doi.org/10.33380/2305-....
Rybchenko OI, Suslov VV, Kedik SA, Domnina YuM, Mogaibo AI. Flow dispersion for obtaining ivermectin encapsulated in polycaprolactone microparticles. Drug Dev Registr. 2022;11(2):79-86. https://doi.org/10.33380/2305-....
Al Shehri W, Almalki J, Alshahrani SM, Alammari A, Khan F, Alangari S. Assistive technology acceptance for visually impaired individuals: A case study of students in Saudi Arabia. PeerJ Comput Sci. 2022;8:e886. https://doi.org/10.7717/peerj-... PMid:35494809 PMCid:PMC9044340.
Journals System - logo
Scroll to top