The phenomenon of musical hallucinations: An updated review
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Department of Psychiatry, College of Medicine, Imam Abdulrahman Bin Faisal University, Dammam, SAUDI ARABIA
Online publication date: 2023-08-01
Publication date: 2023-11-01
Electron J Gen Med 2023;20(6):em533
Musical hallucinations (MHs) is a heterogeneous phenomenon. Multiple case reports and series have improved our understanding of this complex phenomenon. This systematic review aims to assess the available evidence regarding MHs.

PubMed and ProQuest databases were searched for articles published between 2005 and 2022. The keywords used for the search were “music,” “musical,” “hallucinations,” and “hallucinosis.”

The search identified 421 articles; however, only 67 were selected. A total of 77 patients were selected from case reports and series. We identified 50 articles with single cases, four articles with two cases, four articles with three cases, and one article with six cases. Eight additional articles that provided information regarding the prevalence of MHs were included in the review.

MHs are common among older individuals, women, and hearing-impaired individuals. The etiologies include psychiatric, neurological, hearing impairments, and substances. Content of MHs is typically familiar songs/music. No randomized controlled studies are available for determining the treatment for MHs.

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