A study on the ability of panoramic, CT, Cone-beam CT, MRI and ultrasonography in detecting different foreign-bodies in the maxillofacial region (an in-vitro study)
More details
Hide details
Faculty of Dentistry, AJA University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
Department of Oral & Maxillofacial Radiology, School of Dentistry, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran
Hamed Ebrahimnejad   

Department of Oral & Maxillofacial Radiology, School of Dentistry, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran
Submission date: 2018-02-02
Acceptance date: 2018-02-03
Online publication date: 2018-02-15
Publication date: 2018-02-15
Electron J Gen Med 2018;15(3):em16
Background and aim:
Entrapment of foreign-bodies is a common phenomenon in traumatic events occurring in the maxillofacial region. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of panoramic, CT, Cone-beam CT, MRI and ultrasonography in detecting different foreign-bodies in the maxillofacial region.

Four different materials were used as foreign-body including metal, glass, rubber and wood. These particles were prepared in four different sizes from 2*2*2 mm to 5*5*5 millimeters. The foreign-bodies were then implanted into a sheep’s head in the infraorbital part of maxilla and mandibular buccal region. The panoramic, CT, Cone-beam CT, MRI and ultrasonography were obtained from the model and the images were blindly observed and analyzed by two radiologists. A four-point scale was used to interpret the visibility of found foreign-bodies.

CT had the best efficiency in detecting different foreign-bodies. Cone-Beam CT was the next useful technique. The ability of differentiating the foreign-bodies from the adjacent structures were poor in MRI and ultrasonography. As expected, the panoramic was only efficient in detecting metallic bodies.

CT-scan can be introduced as the best imaging modality in detecting different foreign-bodies especially non-metallic ones. CBCT is also acceptable for metal, glass and rubber particles.

Kaviani F, Rashid RJ, Shahmoradi Z, Gholamian M. Detection of foreign bodies by spiral computed tomography and cone beam computed tomography in maxillofacial regions. J Dent Res Dent Clin Dent Prospects. 2014;8(3):166. http://doi.org/10.5681/joddd.2....
Hunter TB, Taljanovic MS. Foreign bodies. Radiographics. 2003;23(3):731-57. https://doi.org/10.1148/rg.233....
White SC, Pharoah MJ. Oral Radiology-E-Book: Principles and Interpretation: Elsevier Health Sciences; 2014.
Vedaei F, Oghabian M A, Firouznia K, Harirchian M H, Lotfi Y, et al. The Human Olfactory System: Cortical Brain Mapping Using fMRI. Iran J Radiol. 2017;14(2):e16250. https://doi.org/10.5812/iranjr....
Zare Mehrjardi M, Darabi M, Bagheri SM, Kamali K, Bijan B. The role of ultrasound (US) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in penile fracture mapping for modified surgical repair. Int Urol Nephrol. 2017;49(6):937-45. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11255....
Haghighi S, Molaei M, Foroughi F, Foroutan M, Dabiri R, Habibi E, et al. Role of endoscopic ultrasound in evaluation of pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors - report of 22 cases from a tertiary center in iran. Asian Pac J Cancer Preven. 2012;13(9):4537-40. https://doi.org/10.7314/APJCP.....
Gaudino C, Cosgarea R, Heiland S, Csernus R, Zobel BB, Pham M, et al. MR-Imaging of teeth and periodontal apparatus: an experimental study comparing high-resolution MRI with MDCT and CBCT. Eur Radiol. 2011;21(12):2575-83. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00330....
Aras M, Miloglu O, Barutcugil C, Kantarci M, Ozcan E, Harorli A. Comparison of the sensitivity for detecting foreign bodies among conventional plain radiography, computed tomography and ultrasonography. Dentomaxillofac Radiol. 2010;39(2):72-8. https://doi.org/10.1259/dmfr/6....
Jarraya M, Hayashi D, de Villiers RV, Roemer FW, Murakami AM, Cossi A, et al. Multimodality imaging of foreign bodies of the musculoskeletal system. Am J Roentgenol. 2014;203(1):W92-W102. https://doi.org/10.2214/AJR.13....
Lagalla R, Manfre L, Caronia A, Bencivinni F, Duranti C, Ponte F. Plain film, CT and MRI sensibility in the evaluation of intraorbital foreign bodies in an in vitro model of the orbit and in pig eyes. Eur Radiol. 2000;10(8):1338-41. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00330....
Eggers G, Mukhamadiev D, Hassfeld S. Detection of foreign bodies of the head with digital volume tomography. Dentomaxillofac Radiol. 2005;34(2):74-9. https://doi.org/10.1259/dmfr/2....
Orlinsky M, Knittel P, Feit T, Chan L, Mandavia D. The comparative accuracy of radiolucent foreign body detection using ultrasonography. Am J Emerg Med. 2000;18(4):401-3. https://doi.org/10.1053/ajem.2....
Oikarinen KS, Nieminen TM, Makarainen H, Pyhtinen J. Visibility of foreign bodies in soft tissue in plain radiographs, computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, and ultrasound. An in vitro study. Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 1993;22(2):119-24. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0901-....
Jacobson JA, Powell A, Craig JG, Bouffard JA, Van Holsbeeck M. Wooden foreign bodies in soft tissue: detection at US. Radiology. 1998;206(1):45-8. https://doi.org/10.1148/radiol....
Holmes PJ, Miller JR, Gutta R, Louis PJ. Intraoperative imaging techniques: a guide to retrieval of foreign bodies. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod. 2005;100(5):614-8. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.trip....
Stuehmer C, Essig H, Bormann K-H, Majdani O, Gellrich N-C, Rücker M. Cone beam CT imaging of airgun injuries to the craniomaxillofacial region. Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2008;37(10):903-6. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijom....
Zhang Y, Zhang L, Zhu XR, Lee AK, Chambers M, Dong L. Reducing metal artifacts in cone-beam CT images by preprocessing projection data. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2007;67(3):924-32. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijro....
Dalley R. Intraorbital wood foreign bodies on CT: use of wide bone window settings to distinguish wood from air. Am J Roentgenol. 1995;164(2):434-5. https://doi.org/10.2214/ajr.16....
Krimmel M, Cornelius C, Stojadinovic S, Hoffmann J, Reinert S. Wooden foreign bodies in facial injury: a radiological pitfall. Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2001;30(5):445-7. https://doi.org/10.1054/ijom.2....