Cardiac surgery-associated acute kidney injury in newborns: A meta-analysis
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Asfendiyarov Kazakh National Medical University, Almaty, KAZAKHSTAN
Kazakh-Russian Medical University, Almaty, KAZAKHSTAN
Online publication date: 2023-01-06
Publication date: 2023-03-01
Electron J Gen Med 2023;20(2):em448
Acute kidney injury is a common complication following pediatric heart surgery, and it has been linked to an increased risk of morbidity and fatality.

The PubMed and Medline databases were combed for relevant research until May 2022. The terms [Cardiac surgery] AND [acute renal injury] AND [newborns OR children OR neonates] AND [randomized control studies OR randomized control trials] were used as search criteria. The studies that met the inclusion criteria were considered qualified using the preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses (PRISMA) guidelines.

A total of 2,941 newborns or children were enrolled in 14 studies, with 931 developing acute renal damage. 2,095 of the enrolled infants and children received steroid, aminophylline, dexmedetomidine, and acetaminophen therapies. In seven studies, the odds ratio for steroids was not significantly different from control. In contrast, two studies comparing aminophylline to a control group found no statistically significant change. Two studies found no significant difference in dexmedetomidine therapy compared to control. Three trials, however, found a significant difference between the acetaminophen treatment and control groups.

Acetaminophen was linked to a decreased risk of postoperative acute renal injury, while steroids had no benefit and aminophylline treatment could be justified.

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