Investigating on Protective Effect of Aloe vera Alcoholic Extract Gel on Serum Levels of Interleukin-1, Interferon Gamma and TGF-β in Experimental Rat Models with Multiple Sclerosis
More details
Hide details
Department of Biology, College of Science, Fars Science and Research, Branch, Islamic Azad University, Fars, Iran
Department of Biology, College of science, Shiraz Branch, Islamic Azad University, Shiraz, Iran
Department of Biology, Shiraz Branch, Islamic Azad University, Shiraz, Iran
Online publication date: 2018-07-15
Publication date: 2019-04-22
Electron J Gen Med 2019;16(2):em122
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a disease of the central nervous system that causes disorders in the nervous system, especially in young people. Increased inflammatory factors are major complications of MS disease. Aloe vera plant has known antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of Aloe vera extract on the serum levels of certain inflammatory cytokines in ethidium bromide (EB)-induced MS models in rats.

In this experimental study, 30 adult female Wistar rats were divided into 6 groups of 5 each, including control, sham, experimental 1 (received 14 μl EB solution), and experimental 2, experimental 3 and experimental 4 groups which received EB solution associated with 300, 600 and 1200 mg/kg Aloe vera alcoholic extract gel, respectively. EB was administered into the lateral ventricles and the extract was given by gavage. On day 35th, blood serum levels of TGF-β, interleukin-1 and interferon gamma were measured by blood sampling from the animals. The results were analyzed by ANOVA and Duncan tests at 5% level of significance (p≤0.05).

The results showed that EB increased the mean serum concentrations of TGF-β, interleukin 1 and interferon gamma, while simultaneous administration of EB with 1200 mg/kg of the Aloe vera alcoholic extract gel significantly reduced the above factors at level of P≤0.05 as compared with EB group.

The results of this study showed that the Aloe vera alcoholic extract gel in a dose-dependent manner can reduce EB effects on serum levels of TGF-β, interleukin-1 and interferon gamma in the rats with MS.

Sluder JA. Newhouse P, Fain D. Pediatric and adolescent multiple sclerosis. Adolescent Medicine Clinics. 2002;13(3):461.
Kasper D, Braunwald E, Fauci A, Hauser S, Longo D, Jameson J, et al. Harrison’s principles of internal medicine. 16th ed. New York: McGraw-Hill Medical Publishing. 2005.
Orton SM, Herrera BM, Yee IM, Valdar W, Ramagopalan SV, Sadovnick AD, Canadian Collaborative Study Group. Sex ratio of multiple sclerosis in Canada: a longitudinal study. The Lancet Neurology. 2006;5(11):932-936. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1474-....
Nabavi SM, Sh P, Ghassemi H. Clinical Course and prognosis of 203 patients with MS in shahid Mostafa Khomeini Hospital, Tehran 2002. Tehran University Medical Journal TUMS Publications. 2006;64(7):90-97.
Smith MM, Arnett PA. Factors related to employment status changes in individuals with multiple sclerosis. Multiple Sclerosis Journal. 2005;11(5):602-609. https://doi.org/10.1191/135245... PMid:16193900.
Compston A, Coles A. Multiple sclerosis. The Lancet. 2008;372(9648):1502–17. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-....
Castellano V, Patel DI, White LJ. Cytokine responses to acute and chronic exercise in multiple sclerosis. Journal of Applied Physiology. 2008;104(6):1697-1702. https://doi.org/10.1152/japplp... PMid:18388249.
Taylor and Francis. Hand book of multiple sclerosis. Cook SD, editions. Managing the Symptoms of Multiple Sclerosis. 4 th ed. New York. 2006;265-71.
Link J, Söderström M, Olsson T, Höjeberg B, Ljungdahl Å, Link H. Increased transforming growth factor‐β, interleukin‐4, and interferon‐γ in multiple sclerosis. Annals of neurology. 1994;36(3):379-386. https://doi.org/10.1002/ana.41... PMid:8080246.
Ferrero S, Pretta S, Ragni N. Multiple sclerosis: management issues during pregnancy. European Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology and Reproductive Biology. 2004;115(1):3-9. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ejog... PMid:15223156.
Apel-Neu A, Zettl UK. Complementary and alternative medicine in multiple sclerosis. J Neurol. 2008;255 Suppl 6:82-6. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00415... PMid:19300965.
Goudarzvand M, Javan M, Mirnajafi-ZadehJ, Mozafari S, Tiraihi T. Vitamins E and D3 attenuate demyelination and potentiate remyelination processes of hippocampal formation of rats following local injection of ethidium bromide. Cell Mol Neurobiol. 2010;30:289-299. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10571... PMid:19768531.
Telefo PB, Moundipa PF, Tchouanguep FM. Oestrogenicity and effect on hepatic metabolism of the aqueous extract of the leaf mixture of Aloe buettneri, Dicliptera verticillata, Hibiscus macranthus and Justicia insularis. Fitoterapia. 2002;73(6):472-478. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0367-....
Oketch-Rabah HAT. Leaf compounds in potential plantation species of Aloe in Kenya. Journal of herbs, spices and medicinal plants. 1997;4(3):25-33. https://doi.org/10.1300/J044v0....
Saks Y, Barkai-Golan R. Aloe vera gel activity against plant pathogenic fungi. Postharvest Biology and Technology. 1995;6(1-2):159-165. https://doi.org/10.1016/0925-5....
Rajasekaran S, Sivagnanam K, Subramanian S. Antioxidant effect of Aloe vera gel extract in streptozotocin-induced diabetes in rats. Pharmacol Rep. 2005;57(1):90-6. PMid:15849382.
Eamlamnam K, Patumraj S, Visedopas N, Thong-Ngam D. Effects of Aloe vera and sucralfate on gastric microcirculatory changes, cytokine levels and gastric ulcer healing in rats. World journal of gastroenterology. 2006;12(13):2034. https://doi.org/10.3748/wjg.v1... PMid:16610053 PMCid:PMC4087681.
Boudreau MD, Frederick AB. An evaluation of the biological and toxicological properties of Aloe barbadensis (miller), Aloe vera. Journal of Environmental Science and Health. 2006;24(1):103-154. https://doi.org/10.1080/105905... PMid:16690538.
Loots dT, van der Westhuizen FH, Botes L. Aloe ferox leaf gel phytochemical content, antioxidant capacity, and possible health benefits. J Agric Food Chem. 2007;55(17):6891-6. https://doi.org/10.1021/jf0711... PMid:17661490.
Lim BO, Seong NS, Choue RW, Kim JD, Lee HY, Kim SY, et al. Efficacy of dietary aloe vera supplementation on hepatic cholesterol and oxidative status in aged rats. J Nutr Sci Vitaminol (Tokyo). 2003;49(4):292-6. https://doi.org/10.3177/jnsv.4....
Mehrabian S, Majd A, Jonoubi P, Kheiri A. A study of the antimutagenic effects of different extracts of Aloe vera leaf gel and latex using Ames test. Arak Medical University Journal (AMUJ). 2012;15(61):100-106.
Jafarzadeh H, Arabi M, Najafi N, Ahadi AM. Effect of Aloe vera gel on TGF-β gene expression in incisional skin wound in BALB/c mice. J Gorgan Univ Med Sci. 2014;16 (3):16-23.
Abdel-Salam OME, Khadrawy YA, Salem NA, Sleem AA. Oxidative stress in a model of toxic demyelination in rat brain: the effect of piracetam and vinpocetine. Neurochem Res. 2011;36:1062-1072. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11064... PMid:21448596.
Abdel-Salam OME, Khadrawy YA, Mohammed NA, Youness ER. The effect of gabapentin on oxidative stress in a model of toxic demyelination in rat brain. J Basic Clin Physiol Pharmacol. 2012;23:61-68. https://doi.org/10.1515/jbcpp-... PMid:23089532.
Abbas AK, Litchman Ah, Pilai S. Cellular and molecular immunology. 7th ed. Philadelphia, PA, Elsevier Saunders. 545. (Student Consult). 2012.
Kumar V, Abbas Ak, Fausto N, Mitchell R. (eds).Tissuerepair:regenera on, healingand fibrosis. Robin’s basic pathology. Philadelphia: Saunders. 2007:63-5.
Guyton A, Hall J. Medical physiology. Translated by Shadan F. Tehran. Tchehr Co. 2006:1480-92.
Mix E, Meyer-Rienecker H, Hartung HP, Zettl UK. Animal models of multiple sclerosis—Potentials and limitations. Prog Neurobiol. 2010;92(3):386-404. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pneu... PMid:20558237.
Chen J, Liu X. The role of interferon γ in regulation of CD4+ T-cells and its clinical implications. Cellular Immunology. 2009;254(2):85-90. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cell... PMid:18848698.
Mosayebi G, Ghazavi A, Aghili B, Mirshafie A. Immunomodulating activity of Aloe vera in animal model of multiple sclerosis. Arak Medical University Journal (AMUJ). 2009;12(3):109-115.