Perspective and Experience of Operating Room Personnel on Ethical Behaviors
More details
Hide details
Ph.D candidate of Nursing, Student Research Committee, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, IRAN
Department of Operating Room, School of Nursing and Midwifery, Nursing and Midwifery Care Research Center, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, IRAN
Associate professor, Community Based Psychiatric Care Research Center. School of Nursing and Midwifery, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, IRAN
Associate Professor of Nursing, Department of Adult Health Nursing, School of Nursing and Midwifery, Nursing and Midwifery Care Research Center, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, IRAN
Professor, Community Based Psychiatric Care Research Center. School of Nursing and Midwifery, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, IRAN
Online publication date: 2020-03-06
Publication date: 2020-03-06
Electron J Gen Med 2020;17(3):em198
Background: unethical behaviors necessitate a specific focus on ethical behavior. A better understanding of the concept can be obtained through the perspective and experience of surgical teams on ethical behavior. As a direct result, the knowledge and performance of the nurses as well as the patients’ satisfaction can be elevated.
Objectives: The present study aimed to assess ethical behavior based on the perspective and experience of the OR personnel.
Research Design: A qualitative study to identify the perspective and experience of OR personnel on ethical behavior, using the conventional qualitative content analysis method.
Participants and Research Context: OR personnel at educational hospitals affiliated to Isfahan University of Medical Sciences were selected from April 2017 to June 2018 Using a purposive sampling method (n=26).In-depth semi-structured interviews Were Used For Data Collection.
Ethical Considerations: The study was approved by University’s Ethics Committee. Prior to the interviews, the research goals and method were explained, the confidentiality of any disclosed information was guaranteed, and voluntary participation was emphasized. Findings: Based on the interview data, four themes were extracted, namely “Enhance professional commitment”, “Strive for excellence”, “Respect for human dignity”, and “Enhance safety”.
Findings: Based on the interview data, four themes were extracted, namely “Enhance professional commitment”, “Strive for excellence”, “Respect for human dignity”, and “Enhance safety”.
Discussion and Conclusion: The findings highlighted the provision of compassionate care by the OR personnel, in accordance with scientific standards. Fair job division and non-discriminatory behavior between the members of the OR team were emphasized. Our findings emphasized the importance of psychological and physical safety. Personal and professional excellence can be achieved through conscious actions by the personnel to correct their shortcomings, improvement of the capabilities of colleagues, and effective teamwork.The findings enlighten healthcare personnel and managers on the concept of ethical behavior toward designing better policies and plans for patient care. the nursing profession will be respected more and ethical behavior and professionalism will become widespread.
Hillgard E. The field of psychology of the Hillgard. Tehran: Roshd Publisher, 2014.
Rabbani R, Ramezani M. Investigating the Impact of the Environment on Individual and Social Behavior from the Viewpoint of Ibn Khaldun. Islamic Revolutionary Research 2006;10.
Mohseni M. Preparations for sociology. Tehran: Doran Publisher, 2011.
Butis J, Rich K. Nursing Ethics. Boston: Jones: Bartlett Publishers, 2008.
Killen AR. Morality in perioperative nurses. AORN journal. 2002;75:532-49. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0001-....
Narvaez D, Rest j. Morality A common concern counselling and human development. 1999.
Maroto-Sánchez A. Productivity in the services sector: conventional and current explanations. The Service Industries Journal. 2012;32:719-46. https://doi.org/10.1080/026420....
Savage JS, Favret JO. Nursing students’ perceptions of ethical behavior in undergraduate nursing faculty. Nurse Education in Practice. 2006;6:47-54. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nepr... PMid:19040855.
Borhani F, Abbaszadeh A, Kohan M, Fazael M. Comparssion of the Moral Resoning Ability of Nurses and Nursing Students at Kerman University of Medical Sciences in Dealing with Ethical Problems. J Med Ethic History Med. 2010;4:74-6.
Chinn PL, Kramer MK. Knowledge Development in Nursing-E-Book: Theory and Process. Elsevier Health Sciences, 2014.
Taylor C, Lillis C, LeMone P, Lynn PA. Fundamentals of nursing: The art and science of nursing care. Lippincott Philadelphia, 2001.
De Cremer D, Mayer DM, Schminke M. Guest editors’ introduction: On understanding ethical behavior and decision making: A behavioral ethics approach. Business Ethics Quarterly. 2010;20:1-6. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10551....
Cropanzano R, Stein JH. Organizational justice and behavioral ethics: Promises and prospects. Business Ethics Quarterly. 2009;19:193-233. https://doi.org/10.5840/beq200....
Gilmartin J, Wright K. Day surgery: patients’ felt abandoned during the preoperative wait. Journal of Clinical Nursing. 2008;17:2418-25. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365... PMid:18705721.
Abdollah Zadeh F, Lotfi M, Aqazadeh A, Asl Z. Viewpoints of operating room staff and students toward ethical climate in teaching hospitals of Tabriz University of Medical Sciences. Medical Ethics Journal. 2015;9.
Sanagoo A, Yazdani S, Jouybari L, Kalantari S. Uncivil behaviors in nurses work environment: a qualitative study. Iranian Journal of Psychiatric Nursing. 2017;4. https://doi.org/10.21859/ijpn-....
Ahmadi M. Survey of workplace violence and related factors in the health personnel in operating room in the educational-medical centers of Esfahan university of Medical Sciences in 2017-18. Esfahan, Iran: Esfahan university of Medical Sciences, 2018.
Pivec M. Play and learn: potentials of game‐based learning. British Journal of Educational Technology. 2007;38:387-93. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467....
Ketefian S. A case study of theory development: Moral behavior in nursing. 1987. https://doi.org/10.1097/000122... PMid:3099633.
Abbaszadeh A, Abedi H, Ghofrani F, Sharif FDaenepm. Designing and evaluating nurses’ ethical performance model. Medicine and cultivation. 2002;47.
Raines ML. Ethical decision making in nurses. Relationships among moral reasoning, coping style, and ethics stress. JONA’S healthcare law, ethics and regulation. 2000;2:29-41. https://doi.org/10.1097/001284....
de Casterlé BD, Grypdonck M, Vuylsteke-Wauters M. Development, reliability, and validity testing of the Ethical Behavior Test: a measure for nurses’ ethical behavior. Journal of nursing measurement. 1997;5:87-112. https://doi.org/10.1891/1061-3....
Bakaeen F, Awad S, Albo D, et al. Epidemiology of exposure to blood borne pathogens on a surgical service. The American Journal of Surgery. 2006;192:e18-e21. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.amjs... PMid:17071175.
Chen C-K, Lin C, Wang S-H, Hou T-H. A study of job stress, stress coping strategies, and job satisfaction for nurses working in middle-level hospital operating rooms. Journal of Nursing Research. 2009;17:199-211. https://doi.org/10.1097/JNR.0b... PMid:19738448.
Asadi Fakhr A, Asadi S. Investigation of the amount of stressors in operating room nurses. Pajouhan Scientific Journal. 2017;15.
Khodaveisi M, Mohammadi N, Omidi A. Frequency of job stress in clinical nurses. Scientific Journal of Hamadan Nursing & Midwifery Faculty. 2006;13.
Brasel KJ, Mol C, Kolker A, Weigelt JA. Needlesticks and surgical residents: who is most at risk? Journal of surgical education. 2007;64:395-8. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jsur... PMid:18063276.
Rezaei Ronaghi J, Paravar M, Rezaei M, Ebrahimi H. Relationship between burnout and social support in emergency medical personnel in Kashan city. JKH. 2016;11:63-72.
Keyvanara M, Shaarbafchi Zadeh N, Alimoradnori M. Occupational Burnout in the Operating Room Staff in Teaching Hospitals: Affiliated Isfahan University of Medical Sciences in 2016. Journal of Payavard Salamat. 2018;12. https://doi.org/10.18502/jebhp....
Dimou FM, Eckelbarger D, Riall TS. Surgeon burnout: a systematic review. Journal of the American College of Surgeons. 2016;222:1230. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jamc... PMid:27106639 PMCid:PMC4884544.
Shoorideh FA, Ashktorab T, Yaghmaei F, Majd HA. Religious responses of ICU nurses to moral distress: A qualitative study. Journal of Research on Religion & Health. 2016;1:3-12.
Borhani F, Mohammadi S, Roshanzadeh M. Moral distress and perception of futile care in intensive care nurses. Journal of medical ethics and history of medicine. 2015;8.
Mohammadi S, Borhani F, Roshanzadeh M. Moral distress and relationship between Physician and nurses. Medical Ethics Journal. 2016;10. https://doi.org/10.21859/mej-1....
Abbasi M, Hajatmand F, Khaghanizadeh M, Gashtroudkhani AA. Moral distress in nurses employed in selected hospitals of Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences. Medical Ethics Journal. 2015;9:121-40.
Mardani Hamooleh M, Iranshahi M, Seyedfatemi N, Haghani H. An evaluation of moral distress levels among the nursing staff of Malayer hospitals: A cross-sectional study. Iranian Journal of Medical Ethics and History of Medicine. 2016;9:42-53.
Narayanasamy A, Andrews A. Cultural impact of Islam on the future directions of nurse education. Nurse education today. 2000;20:57-64. https://doi.org/10.1054/nedt.2... PMid:11138216.
Sadeghi R, Ashktorab T. Ethical problems observed by nurse students: Qualification approach. Medical Ethics Journal. 2011;5:43-62.
Eshkevari KV, Karimi M, Asnaashari H, Kohan N. The assessment of observing patients’ right in Tehran University of Medical Sciences’ hospitals. Iran J Med Ethics Hist Med. 2009;2:47-54.
Dadkhah B, Mohammadi MA, Mozaffari N. Respect rate of patients rights in Ardabil Hospitals in 2002. 2010;9.
Ghavami H, Mohammadi E, Ahmadi F, Basirnia N. Patient’s rights regarding the examination and control of pain after operation. Urmia Medical Journal. 2005;16.
Saber S, Kianian T, Mehrabian S, Bastami M. Observance of professional ethics in the performance of invasive procedures by nurses. Medical Ethics Journal. 2015;9:75-93.
Nikkhah Farkhani Z, Rahimnia F, Kazemi M, Shirazi A. Modeling the ethical behavior of nurses using the theory of virtue ethics. Iranian Journal of Medical Ethics and History of Medicine. 2015;7:29-48.
Memarian R, Salsali M, Vaaki Z, Ahmadi F, Hajizade A. Effective factors in the process of achieving clinical competency. Scientific Journal of Zanjan University of Medical Sciences. 2007;14. https://doi.org/10.1177/096973... PMid:17425149.
Jafaraghaee F, Mehrdad N, Parvizy S. Barriers and facilitators of nursing professional commitment: a qualitative study. Nursing Research. 2014;9.
Gould D, Fontenla M. Commitment to nursing: results of a qualitative interview study. Journal of Nursing Management. 2006;14:213-21. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365... PMid:16600010.
McCabe TJ, Garavan TN. A study of the drivers of commitment amongst nurses: The salience of training, development and career issues. Journal of European Industrial Training. 2008;32:528-68. https://doi.org/10.1108/030905....
LLapa-Rodríguez EO, Trevizan MA, Shinyashiki GT. Conceptual reflections about organizational and professional commitment in the health sector. Revista latino-americana de enfermagem. 2008;16:484-8. https://doi.org/10.1590/S0104-... PMid:18695826.
Wolf ZR, Hoerst B. Professional commitment in RN-BSN and basic BSN students: program evaluation. Nurse educator. 2007;32:61-5. https://doi.org/10.1097/01.NNE... PMid:17496820.
Tehranineshat B, Rakhshan M, Torabizadeh C, Fararouei M. Nurses’, patients’, and family caregivers’ perceptions of compassionate nursing care. Nursing ethics. 2018:0969733018777884. https://doi.org/10.1177/096973... PMid:29898620.
Bahreini M, Ahmadi F, Shahamat S, Behzadi S. Effect of professional port folio in clinical nurses competence. Journal of development and studies center in medical education. 2011;8.
Badger K, Royse D. Describing compassionate care: The burn survivor’s perspective. Journal of Burn Care & Research. 2012;33:772-80. https://doi.org/10.1097/BCR.0b... PMid:22929523.
Teng C-I, Shyu Y-IL, Chang H-Y. Moderating effects of professional commitment on hospital nurses in Taiwan. Journal of Professional Nursing. 2007;23:47-54. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.prof... PMid:17292133.
Shaker M. Ethics and Human Being/A comment in the Book of morality in Molana View. Tehran: Moon religion, 2009.
Farabi A. Thoughts of the utopian Medina. Tehran: Ministry of Culture and Islamic Guidance/Printing and Publishing Organization, 2000.
Ravari A, Marzaei T, Kazamnezhad A. Spiritual approach to clinical nurses’ job satisfaction: a qualitative study. Payesh Journal. 2016;10.
Courtney M, Farnworth L. Professional competence for private practitioners in occupational therapy. Australian Occupational Therapy Journal. 2003;50:234-43. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1440....
Organ DW. Organizational citizenship behavior: The good soldier syndrome. Lexington Books/DC Heath and Com, 1988.
Rezapour Nasrabad R. Leadership Skills Is Necessary For Extray Roles Behaviors And Professional Excellence. 2016. https://doi.org/10.29252/ijnv.....
Parsapoor A, Bagheri A, Larijani B. Patient’s rights charter in Iran. Acta Medica Iranica. 2014:24-8.
O’Leary KJ, Buck R, Fligiel HM, et al. Structured interdisciplinary rounds in a medical teaching unit: improving patient safety. Archives of Internal Medicine. 2011;171:678-84. https://doi.org/10.1001/archin... PMid:21482844.
Baker VOT, Cuzzola R, Knox C, et al. Teamwork education improves trauma team performance in undergraduate health professional students. Journal of educational evaluation for health professions. 2015;12. https://doi.org/10.3352/jeehp.... PMid:26101404 PMCid:PMC4536358.
Borji M, Nourmohammadi H, Otaghi M, Salimi AH, Tarjoman A. Positive effects of cognitive behavioral therapy on depression, anxiety and stress of family caregivers of patients with prostate cancer: A randomized clinical trial. Asian Pacific journal of cancer prevention: APJCP. 2017;18:3207.
Gastmans C. Dignity-enhancing nursing care: a foundational ethical framework. Nursing Ethics. 2013;20:142-9. https://doi.org/10.1177/096973... PMid:23466947.
Lin YP, Tsai YF. Maintaining patients’ dignity during clinical care: a qualitative interview study. Journal of advanced nursing. 2011;67:340-8. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365... PMid:21044135.
G. R. Theory of Sociology in the Contemporary World. Publishers scientific, 1998.
Almoajel AM. Hospitalized patients’ awareness of their rights in Saudi governmental hospital. Middle-East Journal of Scientific Research. 2012;11:329-35.
Ross D, Vasantha S. Study on the Level of Hospital Staffs’ Awareness on Patients’ Rights. Int J Adv Res. 2014;2:770-6.
Heidari A, Ahmadpour Z, GharehBoughlou Z. Patients and nurses awareness of patient’s rights: A comparative study. Health, Spirituality and Medical Ethics. 2013;1.
Phillips N. Berry and Kohen’s Operating Room Techniques. St Louis: Mosby, 2013.
SPAfhwpiipoccvaiIc. Patients’ bill of rights.
Zandiyeh M, Pakro Payravandi A, Imani B, Ahmadi S, Roshanaei G. Quality of compliance of patient’s rights in operating rooms of Hamadan’s educational hospitals in 2012. Pajouhan Scientific Journal. 2015;13.
Parsapoor A, Mohammad K, Afzali HM, Ala’eddini F, Larijani B. Necessity of observing patient’s rights: a survey on the attitudes of patients, nurses and physicians. Journal of medical ethics and history of medicine. 2012;5.
Reed PG, Shearer NBC. Perspectives on nursing theory. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2009.
Alligood MR. Nursing Theorists and Their Work-E-Book. Elsevier Health Sciences, 2017.
Bailey L. Strategies for decreasing patient anxiety in the perioperative setting. AORN journal. 2010;92:445-60. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aorn... PMid:20888947.
Moosavi S. Professional Problems of Operating Rooms from the Standpoint of Personnel in Iran Between 2001-2002. ournal of Guilan University of Medical Sciences. 2003;12.
Lin YP, Tsai YF, Chen HF. Dignity in care in the hospital setting from patients’ perspectives in Taiwan: a descriptive qualitative study. Journal of clinical nursing. 2011;20:794-801. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365... PMid:21320204.
Sonoda Y, Onozuka D, Hagihara A. Factors related to teamwork performance and stress of operating room nurses. Journal of nursing management. 2018;26:66-73. https://doi.org/10.1111/jonm.1... PMid:28744975.
Nguyen N, Watson WD, Dominguez E. An event-based approach to design a teamwork training scenario and assessment tool in surgery. Journal of surgical education. 2016;73:197-207. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jsur... PMid:26774937.
Albina JK. Patient abuse in the health care setting: The nurse as patient advocate. AORN journal. 2016;103:73-81. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aorn... PMid:26746029.
Fazel E, Abbassioun K, Sehhat S, et al. Operating Room The Base Of Morality And The Basis Of Humanistic Professional Duties. Iranian Journal of Surgery. 2017;25.
Organization WH. World alliance for patient safety: WHO draft guidelines for adverse event reporting and learning systems: from information to action. Geneva: World Health Organization, 2005.
Gazerani A, Aliakbari R, Habibzadeh M, Haresabadi M. Assessment of Safety Status in operating room by the World Health Organization Standards for Safety-Friendly Hospital. Journal of North Khorasan University of Medical Sciences. 2014;6. https://doi.org/10.29252/jnkum....
Hall P. Interprofessional teamwork: Professional cultures as barriers. Journal of Interprofessional care. 2005;19:188-96. https://doi.org/10.1080/135618... PMid:16096155.
Ajalli A, Fallahi Khoshknab M, Hosseini MA, Mohammadi I, Sirati Nir M. Exploring the Nurses’ Perception of Patient Safety in Psychiatric Wards: A Qualitative Study. Iranian Journal of Psychiatric Nursing. 2017;5:52-60. https://doi.org/10.21859/ijpn-....
Deering S, Rosen MA, Ludi V, et al. On the front lines of patient safety: implementation and evaluation of team training in Iraq. The Joint Commission Journal on Quality and Patient Safety. 2011;37:350-AP1. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1553-....