Primary immunodeficiency disease in children: A significant but rare cause of failure to thrive
More details
Hide details
Department of Family Medicine, School of Medical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Kubang Kerian, Kelantan, MALAYSIA
Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia, Jalan Raja Perempuan Zainab II, Kubang Kerian, Kelantan, MALAYSIA
Online publication date: 2023-02-26
Publication date: 2023-05-01
Electron J Gen Med 2023;20(3):em474
This case illustrates the rare cause of failure to thrive (FTT) that initially presented with recurrent ear discharge. A five-year-old boy with a history of recurrent ear infections for the past year was treated for acute symptoms during each visit. He later was diagnosed with acute mastoiditis secondary to otitis media by a private otorhinolaryngologist and was referred to a tertiary hospital for admission and parenteral antibiotic commencement. The anthropometric evaluation noted he fell under the group of FTT and had an incidental finding of lower tract respiratory infection that turned out to be tuberculosis infection. Multiple complications occurred during his admission, including candidemia, disseminated tuberculosis, and deep-seated collections. Hence, he was worked up for primary immunodeficiency and was given extensive supportive treatment.
Abd Hamid IJ, Azman NA, Gennery AR, Mangantig E, Hashim IF, Zainudeen ZT. Systematic review of primary immunodeficiency diseases in Malaysia: 1979-2020. Front Immunol. 2020;11:1923. PMid:32983118 PMCid:PMC7479198.
Tangye SG, Al-Herz W, Bousfiha A, et al. Human inborn errors of immunity: 2019 update on the classification from the International Union of Immunological Societies Expert Committee. J Clin Immunol. 2020;40(1):24-64.
Abd Hamid IJ, Zainudeen ZT, Hashim IF. Current perspectives and challenges of primary immunodeficiency disease in Malaysia. Malaysian J Paediatr Child Heal. 2019;25(2):1-6.
Eldeniz FC, Gul Y, Yorulmaz A, Guner SN, Keles S, Reisli I. Evaluation of the 10 warning signs in primary and secondary immunodeficient patients. Front Immunol. 2022;13:900055. PMid:35634313 PMCid:PMC9136241.
Quinn J, Modell V, Orange JS, Modell F. Growth in diagnosis and treatment of primary immunodeficiency within the global Jeffrey Modell Centers Network. Allergy Asthma Clin Immunol. 2022;18(1):19. PMid:35246253 PMCid:PMC8896271.
Al-Herz W, Al-Ahmad M, Al-Khabaz A, Husain A, Sadek A, Othman Y. The Kuwait national primary immunodeficiency registry 2004-2018. Front Immunol. 2019;10:1754. PMid:31396239 PMCid:PMC6668014.
Villas BH. Flow cytometry: An overview. Cell Vis. 1998;5(1):56-61. PMid:9660728.
Anderson JT, Cowan J, Condino-Neto A, Levy D, Prusty S. Health-related quality of life in primary immunodeficiencies: Impact of delayed diagnosis and treatment burden. Clin Immunol. 2022;236:108931. PMid:35063670.
Pinto MV, Neves JF. Precision medicine: The use of tailored therapy in primary immunodeficiencies. Front Immunol. 2022;13:1029560. PMid:36569887 PMCid:PMC9773086.
Nepesov S, Firtina S, Aygun FD, Burtenece N, Cokugras H, Camcioglu Y. Diagnosis of primary immunodeficiency diseases in pediatric patients hospitalized for recurrent, severe, or unusual infections. Allergol Immunopathol (Madr). 2022;50(4):50-6. PMid:35789402.
Journals System - logo
Scroll to top