Awareness of chronic kidney disease and its risk factors in the former Soviet Union countries
More details
Hide details
Department of Medicine, Nazarbayev University School of Medicine, Astana, KAZAKHSTAN
Department of Internal, Occupational Diseases and Rheumatology, Tareev Clinic of Internal Diseases, Sechenov University, Moscow, RUSSIA
Department of Internal Diseases, Nephrology and Hemodialysis, Tashkent Pediatric Medical Institute, Tashkent, UZBEKISTAN
Department of Adult & Pediatric Nephrology, Republican Specialized Scientific Practical Medical Center of Nephrology & Kidney Transplantation, Tashkent, UZBEKISTAN
Department of Immunogenetics, Republican Specialized Scientific Practical Medical Center of Nephrology and Kidney Transplantation, Tashkent, UZBEKISTAN
Department of Efferent Technologies, SI Institute of Nephrology of NAMS of Ukraine, Kyiv, UKRAINE
Department of Nephrology, National Center for Cardiology and Internal Medicine, Bishkek, KYRGYZSTAN
Department of Nephrology, Azerbaijan Medical University, Baku, AZERBAIJAN
Department of Nephrology, National Medical Center “SHIFOBAKHSH”, Dushanbe, TAJIKISTAN
Tbilisi State Medical University and Ingorokva High Medical Technology University Clinic, Nephrology Division, Tbilisi, GEORGIA
Department of Medicine, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, CANADA
Online publication date: 2023-08-01
Publication date: 2023-11-01
Electron J Gen Med 2023;20(6):em528
Assessment of public knowledge of chronic kidney disease (CKD) is an essential step in development of CKD prevention and screening programs. Our aim was to estimate the level of public CKD knowledge and its predictors in the former Soviet Union countries using a validated questionnaire.

Materials and methods:
This cross-sectional survey was conducted in 10 countries using an adapted validated online questionnaire. Descriptive statistics were used to describe participants’ characteristics and assess public CKD knowledge level. A multiple linear regression analysis was performed to identify predictors of CKD knowledge.

2,715 participants satisfied the inclusion criteria. Respondents having higher level of education, living in countries belonging to the lower middle-income countries, having a personal history of diabetes and hypertension, and having a family history of kidney disease showed significantly better CKD knowledge.

The level of CKD knowledge among the population of post-Soviet states was found to be low, although some personal characteristics were associated with better CKD knowledge.

SRS. Summary of recommendation statements. Kidney Int Suppl (2011). 2013;3(1):5-14. https://doi.org/10.1038/kisup.... PMid:25598998 PMCid:PMC4284512.
Hill NR, Fatoba ST, Oke JL, Hirst JA, O’Callaghan CA, Lasserson DS, et al. Global prevalence of chronic kidney disease–A systematic review and meta-analysis. Plos One. 2016;11(7):e0158765. https://doi.org/10.1371/journa... PMid:27383068 PMCid:PMC4934905.
Bikbov B, Purcell CA, Levey AS, Smith M, Abdoli A, Abebe M, et al. Global, regional, and national burden of chronic kidney disease, 1990-2017: A systematic analysis for the global burden of disease study 2017. Lancet. 2020;395(10225):709-33. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-... PMid:32061315.
Liyanage T, Ninomiya T, Jha V. Worldwide access to treatment for end-stage kidney disease: A systematic review. Lancet. 2015;385(9981):1975-82. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-... PMid:25777665.
Kinchen KS, Sadler J, Fink N, Brookmeyer R, Klag MJ, Levey AS, et al. The timing of specialist evaluation in chronic kidney disease and mortality. Ann Intern Med. 2002;137(6):479-86. https://doi.org/10.7326/0003-4... PMid:12230348.
Levin A, Stevens PE. Early detection of CKD: The benefits, limitations and effects on prognosis. Nat Rev Nephrol. 2011;7(8):446-57. https://doi.org/10.1038/nrneph... PMid:21712852.
McLaughlin K, Manns B, Culleton B, Donaldson C, Taub K. An economic evaluation of early versus late referral of patients with progressive renal insufficiency. Am J Kidney Dis. 2001;38(5):1122-8. https://doi.org/10.1053/ajkd.2... PMid:11684571.
World Health Organization. Diabetes. World Health Organization; 2022. Available at: https://www.who.int/news-room/... (Accessed: 13 March 2023).
World Health Organization. Hypertension. World Health Organization; 2021. Available at: https://www.who.int/news-room/... (Accessed: 13 March 2023).
World Health Organization. Obesity and overweight. World Health Organization; 2021. Available at: https://www.who.int/news-room/... (Accessed: 13 March 2023).
CDC. Chronic kidney disease in the United States. CDC; 2021. Available at: https://www.cdc.gov/kidneydise... (Accessed: 13 March 2023).
Chu CD, Chen MH, McCulloch CE, et al. Patient awareness of CKD: A systematic review and meta-analysis of patient-oriented questions and study setting. Kidney Med. 2021; 3(4):576-85.e1. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.xkme... PMid:34401725 PMCid:PMC8350814.
Luyckx VA, Cherney DZI, Bello AK. Preventing CKD in developed countries. Kidney Int Rep. 2020;5(3):263-77. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ekir... PMid:32154448 PMCid:PMC7056854.
Gheewala PA, Peterson GM, Zaidi STR, Jose MD, Castelino RL. Public knowledge of chronic kidney disease evaluated using a validated questionnaire: A cross-sectional study. BMC Public Health. 2018;18(1):371. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12889... PMid:29554891 PMCid:PMC5859642.
Alobaidi S. Knowledge of chronic kidney disease among the population of Saudi Arabia evaluated using a validated questionnaire: A cross-sectional study. Patient Prefer Adherence. 2021;15:1281-8. https://doi.org/10.2147/PPA.S3... PMid:34163145 PMCid:PMC8214335.
Oluyombo R, Ayodele O, Akinwusi P, et al. Awareness, knowledge and perception of chronic kidney disease in a rural community of South-West Nigeria. Niger J Clin Pract. 2016;19(2):161-9. https://doi.org/10.4103/1119-3... PMid:26856275.
Tiwari P. Assessment of public knowledge and attitude towards chronic kidney disease by using a validated questionnaire: An observational study. Biomed J Sci Tech Res. 2022;41(5):33055. https://doi.org/10.26717/BJSTR....
Chow K, Szeto C, Kwan BC, Leung C, Li PK. Public lacks knowledge on chronic kidney disease: Telephone survey. Hong Kong Med J. 2014;20(2):139-44. https://doi.org/10.12809/hkmj1... PMid:24625388.
Shah JM, Ramsbotham J, Seib C, Muir R, Bonner A. A scoping review of the role of health literacy in chronic kidney disease self-management. J Ren Care. 2021;47(4):221-33. https://doi.org/10.1111/jorc.1... PMid:33533199.
Taylor DM, Fraser S, Dudley C, et al. Health literacy and patient outcomes in chronic kidney disease: A systematic review. Nephrol Dial Transplant. 2017;33(9):1545-58. https://doi.org/10.1093/ndt/gf... PMid:29165627.
Saengcharoen W, Buasri N, Khantapokha B, Lerkiatbundit S. Public knowledge and factors associated with inappropriate analgesic use: A survey in Thailand. Int J Pharm Pract. 2015;24(1):22-9. https://doi.org/10.1111/ijpp.1... PMid:26149088.
Yan MT, Chao CT, Lin SH. Chronic kidney disease: Strategies to retard progression. Int J Mol Sci. 2021;22(18):10084. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22... PMid:34576247 PMCid:PMC8470895.
Ammirati AL. Chronic kidney disease. Rev Assoc Med Bras (1992). 2020;66Suppl 1(Suppl 1):s03-9. https://doi.org/10.1590/1806-9... PMid:31939529.
Smith WG. Does gender influence online survey participation? A record-linkage analysis of university faculty online survey response behavior. Available at: https://eric.ed.gov/?id=ED5017....