Inducing situations and pathogenetic chains of health deterioration in combatants in the context of COVID-19 and quarantine
More details
Hide details
Department of Psychiatry, Psychotherapy, General and Medical Psychology, Narcology and Sexology, Zaporizhzhia State Medical University, Zaporizhzhia, UKRAINE
Department of Therapy and Endocrinology, Zaporizhzhia Medical Academy of Postgraduate Education of the Ministry of Health of Ukraine, Zaporizhzhia, UKRAINE
Online publication date: 2022-12-23
Publication date: 2023-01-01
Electron J Gen Med 2023;20(1):em442
The purpose of the study was to investigate the mechanisms underlying COVID-19 (coronavirus disease 2019) pandemic and the ensuing health problems associated with quarantine.

All combatants who were hospitalized during the first and most severe quarantine restrictions in Ukraine (from 12 March 2020 to 22 May 2020) were surveyed. Through clinical, anamnestic, psychopathological, and psychodiagnostic examination, including psychoanalysis and the fear of COVID-19 scale, the authors identified combatants’ health disorders and their association with pandemic and quarantine-related experiences.

The authors found that the following situations could provoke deterioration in the health of combatants due to fear: contact with a patient with COVID-19, planned posting to the hotbed of COVID-19, military service in the area of high risk of contact with patients with COVID-19, receiving information about COVID-19, receiving false information about COVID-19, disruption of critical infrastructure due to quarantine measures.the authorshave provided an algorithm by which these traumatic situations provoke the development of health disorders. In particular, they cause fear of social and work stigmatization due to infection with SARS-CoV-2 (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2), fear of suffering or death during COVID-19, ear that family members will become infected, erroneous conclusions about someone deliberately exaggerating the dangers of COVID-19, feeling of injustice and incorrectness of the quarantine measures, household discomfort and organizational stress. These experiences change the subjective picture of the future of combatants, and this provokes the development or exacerbation of pre-existing mental and somatic disorders. The impact of information on COVID-19 on combatant health disorders was investigated.

The authors believe that this knowledge will help to develop special psychoprophylactic approaches that would prevent the development of mental and somatic disorders due to the COVID-19 pandemic and improve the quality of quarantine measures. It will also allow measures to be taken to prevent a reduction in the army’s combat effectiveness through a pandemic and quarantine.

Liu J, Liu S. The management of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). J Med Virol. 2020;92(9):1484-90. https://doi.org/10.1002/jmv.25... PMid:32369222 PMCid:PMC7267323.
Rathor R, Suryakumar G, Singh SN, Kumar BJ. Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19): Research, clinical knowledge, and preventive measures. J Environ Pathol Toxicol Oncol. 2021;40(1):29-42. https://doi.org/10.1615/JEnvir... PMid:33639071.
Anka AU, Tahir MI, Abubakar SD, et al. Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19): An overview of the immunopathology, serological diagnosis and management. Scand J Immunol. 2021;93(4):e12998. https://doi.org/10.1111/sji.12... PMCid:PMC7744910.
Atzrodt CL, Maknojia I, McCarthy RDP, et al. A guide to COVID-19: A global pandemic caused by the novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2. FEBS J. 2020;287(17):3633-50. https://doi.org/10.1111/febs.1... PMid:32446285 PMCid:PMC7283703.
Tsai SC, Lu CC, Bau DT, et al. Approaches towards fighting the COVID 19 pandemic. Int J Mol Med. 2021;47(1):3-22. https://doi.org/10.3892/ijmm.2... PMid:33236131 PMCid:PMC7723515.
Liu X, Liu C, Liu G, Luo W, Xia N. COVID-19: Progress in diagnostics, therapy and vaccination. Theranostics. 2020;10(17):7821-35. https://doi.org/10.7150/thno.4... PMCid:PMC7359073.
Guner R, Hasanoglu I, Aktas F. COVID-19: Prevention and control measures in community. Turk J Med Sci. 2020;50(SI-1):571-7. https://doi.org/10.3906/sag-20... PMid:32293835 PMCid:PMC7195988.
Nußbaumer-Streit B, Mayr V, Dobrescu AI, et al. Quarantine alone or in combination with other public health measures to control COVID-19: A rapid review. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2020;4(4):CD013574. https://doi.org/10.1002/146518... PMid:32267544 PMCid:PMC7141753.
Zanardo V, Manghina V, Giliberti L, Vettore M, Severino L, Straface G. Psychological impact of COVID-19 quarantines measures in northeastern Italy on mothers in the immediate postpartum period. Int J Gynaecol Obstet. 2020;150(2):184-8. https://doi.org/10.1002/ijgo.1... PMid:32474910 PMCid:PMC9087548.
Wilder-Smith A, Freedman DO. Isolation, quarantine, social distancing and community containment: Pivotal role for old-style public health measures in the novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) outbreak. J Travel Med. 2020;27(2):taaa020. https://doi.org/10.1093/jtm/ta... PMid:32052841 PMCid:PMC7107565.
Röhr S, Müller F, Jung F, Apfelbacher C, Seidler A, Riedel-Heller SG. Psychosocial impact of quarantine measures during serious coronavirus outbreaks: A rapid review. Psychiatr Prax. 2020;47(4):179-89. https://doi.org/10.1055/a-1159... PMid:32340047 PMCid:PMC7295307.
Sacco MA, Caputo F, Ricci P, et al. The impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on domestic violence: The dark side of home isolation during quarantine. Med-Leg J. 2020;88(2):71-3. https://doi.org/10.1177/002581... PMid:32501175.
Mukhtar S. Psychological health during the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic outbreak. Int J Soc Psychiatry. 2020;66(5):512-6. https://doi.org/10.1177/002076... PMid:32434402 PMCid:PMC7405632.
Steardo Jr L, Steardo L, Verkhratsky A. Psychiatric face of COVID-19. Transl Psychiatry. 2020;10(1):261. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41398... PMid:32732883 PMCid:PMC7391235.
Cinelli M, Quattrociocchi W, Galeazzi A, et al. The COVID-19 social media infodemic. Sci Rep. 2020;10(1):16598. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598... PMid:33024152 PMCid:PMC75389.
Fitz Maurice M, Di Tommas, F, Baranchuk A. Effect of an intervention on social networks in the time of COVID-19. Medicina (B Aires), 2020;80(3):310.
Tagliabue F, Galassi L. Mariani P. The “pandemic” of disinformation in COVID-19. SN Compr Clin Med. 2020;2(9):1287-9. https://doi.org/10.1007/s42399... PMid:32838179 PMCid:PMC7395797.
Ahorsu DK, Lin C-Y, Imany V, Saffari M, Griffiths MD, Pakpour AH. The fear of COVID-19 scale: Development and initial validation. Int J Ment Health Addict. 2022;20(3):1537-45. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11469... PMid:32226353 PMCid:PMC7100496.
Rehman U, Shahnawaz MG, Khan NH, et al. Depression, anxiety and stress among Indians in times of COVID-19 lockdown. Community Ment Health J. 2021;57(1):42-8. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10597... PMid:32577997 PMCid:PMC7309680.
Balhara YPS, Kattula D, Singh S, Chukkali S, Bhargava R. Impact of lockdown following COVID-19 on the gaming behavior of college students. Indian J Public Health Res Dev. 2020;64(Supplement):S172-6. https://doi.org/10.4103/ijph.I... PMid:32496250.
Solé B, Verdolini N, Amoretti S, et al. Effects of the COVID-19 pandemic and lockdown in Spain: Comparison between community controls and patients with a psychiatric disorder. Preliminary results from the BRIS-MHC STUDY. J Affect Disord. 2021;281:13-23. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jad.... PMid:33279864 PMCid:PMC7683299.
Loades ME, Chatburn E, Higson-Sweeney N, et al. Rapid systematic review: The impact of social isolation and loneliness on the mental health of children and adolescents in the context of COVID-19. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2020;59(11):1218-39.e3. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jaac... PMid:32504808 PMCid:PMC7267797.
Banerjee D, Rai M. Social isolation in COVID-19: The impact of loneliness. Int J Soc Psychiatry. 2020;66(6):525-7. https://doi.org/10.1177/002076... PMid:32349580 PMCid:PMC7405628.
Hwang TJ, Rabheru K, Peisah C, Reichman W, Ikeda M. Loneliness and social isolation during the COVID-19 pandemic. Int Psychogeriatrics. 2020;32(10):1217-20. https://doi.org/10.1017/S10416... PMid:32450943 PMCid:PMC7306546.
Jagadheesan K, Danivas V, Itrat Q, Shekaran L, Lakra V. A 6-month study on the pattern of emergency department presentations for schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders during COVID-19 lockdown. Psychiatry Res. 2021;303:114081. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psyc... PMid:34246006 PMCid:PMC8520318.
Bhatia MS, Goyal S, Singh A, Daral A. COVID-19 pandemic-induced panic disorder. Prim Care Companion CNS Disord. 2020;22(3):20l02626.https://doi.org/10.4088/PCC.20....
Dubey S, Biswas P, Ghosh R, et al. Psychosocial impact of COVID-19. Diabetol Metab Syndr. 2020;14(5):779-88. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dsx.... PMid:32526627 PMCid:PMC7255207.
Shuja KH, Aqeel M, Jaffar A, Ahmed A. COVID-19 pandemic and impending global mental health implications. Psychiatr Danub. 2020;32(1):32-5. https://doi.org/10.24869/psyd.... PMid:32303027.
Bruns DP, Kraguljac NV, Bruns TR. COVID-19: Facts, cultural considerations, and risk of stigmatization. J Transcult Nurs. 2020;31(4):326-32. https://doi.org/10.1177/104365... PMid:32316872 PMCid:PMC7324134.
Chaimowitz GA, Upfold C, Géa LP, et al. Stigmatization of psychiatric and justice-involved populations during the COVID-19 pandemic. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry. 2021;106:110150. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pnpb... PMid:33098908 PMCid:PMC7577257.
Abuhammad S, Alzoubi KH, Khabour O. Fear of COVID-19 and stigmatization towards infected people among Jordanian people. Int J Clin Pract. 2021;75(4):e13899. https://doi.org/10.1111/ijcp.1... PMCid:PMC7883188.
Anwar A, Malik M, Raees V, Anwar A. Role of mass media and public health communications in the COVID-19 pandemic. Cur J Med Sci. 2020;12(9):e10453. https://doi.org/10.7759/cureus....
Fiorillo A, Gorwood P. The consequences of the COVID-19 pandemic on mental health and implications for clinical practice. Eur Psychiatry. 2020;63(1):e32. https://doi.org/10.1192/j.eurp... PMid:32234102 PMCid:PMC7156565.
Kobets SV. Forensic examinations during the investigation of threats or violence against a law enforcement officer. Law J of the Nation Acad of Intern Affairs. 2022;12(2):32-40. https://doi.org/10.56215/04221....
Journals System - logo
Scroll to top