Patterns of superficial antecubital veins observed by near-infrared light technique: A community-based study
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Department of Anatomy, College of Medicine, Imam Abdulrahman Bin Faisal University, P.O. Box 2114, Dammam 31451, SAUDI ARABIA
College of Medicine, Imam Abdulrahman Bin Faisal University, P.O. Box 2114, Dammam 31451, SAUDI ARABIA
Department of Physiology, College of Medicine, Imam Abdulrahman Bin Faisal University, P.O. Box 2114, Dammam 31451, SAUDI ARABIA
Online publication date: 2022-12-23
Publication date: 2023-01-01
Electron J Gen Med 2023;20(1):em441
The area of the cubital fossa contains the main superficial veins, including the basilic, cephalic, median cubital, and median antebrachial veins, and their innominate small tributaries. For this reason, it is the area most preferred by medical practitioners to access the circulatory system for various clinical applications.

The aim of this study was to address the prevalence of different types of antecubital fossa superficial vein patterns observable among Saudi subjects by applying a tourniquet and using a VeinViewer®.

Materials and methods:
Over the period from September 2020 to April 2021, a cross-sectional study was carried out in the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia. The 151 study subjects were randomly chosen from the emergency department of King Fahad University Hospital. A total of 302 venous patterns were obtained; 55 were excluded due to the presence of scar tissues over the antecubital fossa, obesity, or thick subcutaneous tissue. Four classes of cubital venous patterns were established according to other studies, and a VeinViewer® and a tourniquet were used to visualize the venous patterns.

Of the 151 people, 21 were female and 130 were male. Among the included 247 venous patterns, the predominant type was type 2 (52.2%), characterized by a branching off the median cubital vein from the cephalic vein and an upward progression to join the basilic vein.

Type 2 appears to be the dominant pattern, with no significant relation to the origins of the parents, in the Saudi population. Gender does not influence the venous patterns. Further studies are needed outside the restrictions of the COVID-19 pandemic to obtain a larger sample.

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