The impact of weight loss diet programs on anemia, nutrient deficiencies, and organ dysfunction markers among university female students: A cross-sectional study
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Department of Medical Analysis, Princess Aisha Bint Al-Hussein College of Nursing and Medical Sciences, Al-Hussein Bin Talal University, Ma’an, JORDAN
Department of Biology, College of Science, Al-Hussein Bin Talal University, Ma’an, JORDAN
Online publication date: 2022-11-28
Publication date: 2023-01-01
Electron J Gen Med 2023;20(1):em436
Practicing restricted weight loss diet programs (WLDPs) without proper supervision can result in nutritional deficiency, which can lead to the development of several nutritional disorders. The current cross-sectional study aimed to investigate the impact of WLDPs practiced by university female students on the prevalence of micronutrient deficiencies, anemia, and organs dysfunction, and to assess the association of identified anomalies with dieting practices and dietary habits of university female students. A total of 185 (105 dieting and 80 non-dieting) volunteers’ female students at Al-Hussein Bin Talal University participated in this study. After the participants answered a questionnaire, blood samples were collected for hematological and biochemical analysis, and the body mass index (BMI) was determined. The results show that there were no significant differences between dieting and non-dieting groups in biochemical markers of kidney and liver functions as well as serum levels of copper, zinc, and folate. On the other hand, dieting participants exhibited significantly lower level of hemoglobin, serum ferritin, iron, and vitamin B12 than encounter group (p<0.05). Attempting WLDPs significantly increased the prevalence of anemia (46.7%), iron deficiency (57.1%), and iron deficiency anemia (IDA) (41.9%), comparing to non-dieting students (28.7%, 33.8%, and 15.0%, respectively) (p<0.005). Chi-square test showed that the development of anemia among dieting girls was significantly dependence of several factors including BMI category, source and duration of the diet programs, and skipping breakfast (p<0.05). In conclusion, young girls attempting WLDPs without professional guidance are more prone to the risk of nutrients deficiencies and the development nutritional disorders like IDA. An educational program should be employed to teach young females on when and how to adopt healthy WLDPs.
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